Title: A Unique Sprinkler System Design for a Hi-Rise Building Author: David M. Banwarth Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 75-6 Date: 1975 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The case for the use of protected plastic pipe for automatic sprinkler systems as an economically viable solution for marginal installations is advocated to promote life safety in hi-rise buildings. This paper describes an installation in a full fire-resistive, 12 story, 200 unit apartment building, the Racquet Club Towers at Adelphi, Maryland, where the concern was for life safety, which is not always assured by heavy fire-resistive construction. Such a system does not conform to any nationally recognized standard in material or design, but it is advocated where no installation at all would be installed because of the cost.
Title: Who Will Design Fire Protection of the Future Author: John A. Rockett, Ph. D. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 75-5 Date: 1975 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The question of who will design fire protection of the future depends on a number of factors. In this paper, the author surveys the fire protection profession and broadly categorizes the membership of the Society of Fire Protection Engineers into “raters” (those performing risk assessment and rating), “designers” (those involved in the design or critique of fire protection systems) and “guiders” (those involved in guiding the industry via several means). With these categories established, the current technologies, trends and market forces are identified and applied to determine potential future conditions for each of the categories.
Author: Peter Kirchhoff Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 75-7 Date: 1975 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: These European Automatic Sprinkler Standards were developed by the Comite Europeen des Assurances, an international association of insurance organizations of Western Europe, based on a detailed analysis of reliable fire statistics on sprinkler-protected property over an extended period and the results of practical, full-scale fire tests. Sprinkler requirements involved in the use of new materials, new processes and new storage techniques are determined by expert judgment based on the available knowledge until more experience is obtained. These sprinkler rules of the insurance organizations are widely used by fire brigades and other public safety authorities. The pragmatic European approach to sprinkler design should be of use in the evaluation of U.S. experience and design and for comparisons.
Author: Stanley J. Kravontka, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 76-1 Date: 1976 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: With the possible advent of “megastructures” (very high multiple-use towers) which could be considered as a number of buildings (100 foot cubes) within one large building, the problem of fire safety will be intensified. Occupant safety during fire emergencies would involve movement from fire-alarmed areas to fire-safe areas by redesigned elevator equipment which would be operationally safety for the time required for occupant movement during the fire. Of course, passage of elevators through the fire area would not be contemplated. Future traction machines would be characterized by miniaturization and encapsulation. Controlled rectifiers with association silicon-based, solid-state circuitry would replace the conventional motor-generator sets with associated starters on traction machines.
Title: New Technique for Welding and Extending Sprinkler Pipes Author: Ernest W. Pyle Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 76-2 Date: 1976 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: A technique for isolating sections of an existing sprinkler system for alterations, repairs or extensions is proposed. Utilizing a wooden box fitted with a pipe and filled with liquid nitrogen, an ice plug is formed in the pipe which effectively stops the flow of water for the duration of the work. Tests indicate that in the event of fire following the formation of the ice plug, the ice plug can be quickly thawed allowing the full flow of water.
Title: Arson ‘76 Author: R.G. Provencher Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 76-3 Date: 1976 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Arson represents a dollar loss four to eight times greater than any other individual crime. Only in cases where there are deaths does arson concern the public. Arson investigation is frustrating, difficult, time consuming, dangerous and often fruitless. In the majority of cases of arson, the victim or alleged victim can frequently provide both the victim and the suspect. Arson is a very personal thing and the victim may be closely associated with the crime and the perpetrators. The control is based on thorough investigation before the insurance is written, aggressive investigation after the fire, and a no-compromise defense in the denial of the claim before the civil court. Thorough investigations act as a deterrent to other arsonists.
Authors: Nicholas Borg and Leonard David Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 76-4 Date: 1976 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Arson is the fastest growing and one of the most costly crimes in the United States. A large segment of profit motivated arson can be controlled by tactically reducing the motivation by removing the dollar incentives. A more selective method of writing insurance and a tougher policy of settling claims is indicated. Neighborhood preservation is essential to arson reduction. Vacant buildings must be demolished or sealed. Arson is a symptom of many social phenomena such as: poverty, a deteriorating house infrastructure, a poor investment climate and an antiquated welfare system. Solution to these social ills must come from the federal government although this is unlikely in the foreseeable future.
Title: Communications for Fire Fighting and Evacuation Author: Stanley J. Kravontka, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 76-5 Date: 1976 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The traditional functions of protective signaling are being expanded to include a wide range of audible and visual signaling systems which are being applied to the new demands of the high-density modern building complex. The needs for security protection could complement the fire protection needs. Fire-immune radio-transmission links equivalent to traditional wire links could replace of the wire links. Audio-visual appliances, television and film cameras could become standard appliances for protective systems. The superior information conveyance of light over sound, especially for those with hearing impairment, is the basis for visual signaling appliances which could supplement audible appliances.
Title: Investigative Photography Author: Elliott R. Berrin. P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 77-1 Date: 1977 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The article is directed toward arson investigators, fire protection consultants, engineers, metallurgists or other technical specialists who could use photography as an adjunct to their reports and as a valuable aid in court. Cameras, light meters, electronic flashes, filters and film suitable for investigative photography are discussed in non-technical language, as well as techniques such as shutter speed, diaphragm settings, lighting and composition. Numerous tips are given along with special requirement of investigative photography with emphasis on the admissibility of photographs in court.
Title: Electrical Fires in New York City - 1976 Author: W. Robert Powers, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 77-3 Date: 1977 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The Fire Patrol of the New York Board of Fire Underwriters issued a bulletin every day giving some details on all fires in New York City. The survey, based on such information obtained on the 2867 fires identified in 1976 as being electrical in origin, discusses not only the cause of electrical fires but their prevention. Surprisingly enough, 38% or 1079 of the electrical fires occurred in light fixtures, switches and outlets. These are the points of most frequent interruption of current, arcing and mechanical abuse. Motors are responsible for 530 fires or 19% of the electrical fires, with elevators responsible for 142 of these or 5% of the total electrical fires. Old age, which resulted in dried out, cracked insulation, distorted windings and worn bearings, most common cause of motor fires
Title: Interior Finish as a Potential Fire Safety Engineering Design Parameter in Mobile Home Construction Author: Edward K. Budnick Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 77-4 Date: 1977 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The ongoing Mobile Home Fire Safety Project at the National Bureau of Standards [now the National Institute of Standards and Technology] is directed at providing qualitative guidelines for fire safety in mobile home design and construction. Full-scale fire testing, predicated on major mobile home fire incident scenarios, has been utilized extensively to demonstrate the effects on fire development resulting from changes in key design parameters such as the interior finish materials used on walls and the ceiling.
Title: The Home Fire Viewed as a Scientific System Author: Howard W. Edmonds, Ph.D. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 77-5 Date: 1977 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Three repeat full-scale bedroom fire tests in which the fire grew from an ignition in the middle of a polyurethane mattress to flashover permits us to distinguish in this complex process a series of events which are only loosely couple to each other. A number of these separable events are briefly described and illustrated. As these component parts of a fire become quantitatively understood, the entire fire growth process can be quantitatively calculated in a modular fashion – that is by computing in succession each component part and introducing the interactions between these parts. A long look into the future suggests that this budding process may some day permit evaluation of the details of a fire in a large building and thus permit more exact building design for fire safety.
Title: An Engineering Approach to the Positioning of Fire Detectors in Residences Authors: Thomas E. Waterman, W.W. Harpe and W.J. Christian Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 77-6 Date: 1977 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Documents through full-scale dwelling fire tests the proper positioning of smoke detectors in dwellings to provide adequate warning time under real residential fire conditions to permit escape of occupants. A two-year program to evaluate location and sensitivity requirements of detectors is summarized, citing earlier reports of the same tests, and arriving at recommendations to change the existing (1975 Edition) of the Standard for the Installation, Maintenance, and Use of Household Fire Warning Equipment (NFPA No. 74).
Title: The Probable Impact of Residential Fire Suppression Systems on Fire Loss Reduction Authors: Rolf Jensen, P.E. and Peter Yurkonis, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 77-7 Date: 1977 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Describes a study of automatic residential suppression systems and how to get adequate systems into the nation’s homes. After studying the residential fire record and the available candidate systems, a review is given of the factors governing consumer acceptance, including installation cost, system cost/benefits, maintenance requirements, system aesthetics, consumer perception of their fire risks and other factors. It is concluded that low-cost residential sprinkler system using either a packaged water supply or a small volume water supply may well have use in the new single family housing market. In existing homes, sprinkler systems are not seen to widely used until a self-contained system can be developed and installed.
Title: Directions to Improve Application of Systems Approach to Fire Protection Requirements for Buildings Author: Harold E. Nelson Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 77-8 Date: 1977 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This paper covers an examination of the recent and ongoing work in the development of systems approaches for design of fire protection in buildings, as carried out in the United States. This paper proposes a model of fire and its impact based on a “states-transition” concept. The fire is viewed as two separate sequences (Fire Behavior and Human Behavior). Each sequence consisting of connecting realms of consistent behavior. The concept views these sequences as interrelating, with a distinct rate consistent for each realm. The concept of “states-conditions” is also evaluated. A matrix relating the factors, conditions and development phase of fire is presented.
Title: Fire Performance Characteristics in Rooms as the Result of Increased Insulation Authors: J.E. Prusaczyk, R.H. Bell, B.W. Oberg, and P.C. Wilson Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 78-2 Date: 1978 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Single room structures were constructed and insulated with faced mineral fiber batts according to Federal Housing Administration (R-19 ceiling, R-11 walls and floor) and energy efficient home (R-38 ceiling, R-19 walls and R-22 floor) recommendations. Multiple fire tests were carried out for each condition. All rooms used thirty pound wooden cribs as the fuel source and were thoroughly monitored with thermocouples. The thermal results were for rooms constructed with sheet metal and concrete block. This study demonstrates no significant impact on fire performance characteristics in these rooms as a result of increasing the amount of insulation.
Title: Safety Considerations of Energy Saving Materials and Devices Author: Steve Mazzoni Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 78-6 Date: 1978 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This paper recognizes that energy conservation is a national necessity and that American industry is rising to the challenge by introducing a number of products and materials to meet the needs. The basic problem covered by the paper is how to judge the safety aspects of these products and materials, both in their design and in their installation, use and maintenance.
Title: Fire Protection Problems with Cellulose Based Insulation Products Authors: Joseph B. Zicherman and Fred L. Fisher Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 78-7 Date: 1978 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: A comprehensive, current (as of April 1978) and yet concise appraisal of fire protection problems associated with cellulose based insulation products. The authors first cover the basic manufacturing processes and installation practices, and then outline the fire problems presented by the products, such as: (1) the combustible properties of the materials as used for insulation; (2) the difficulties found in the manufacturing methods currently employed which do not guarantee fire retardancy; and (3) installation techniques which can introduce fire hazards with improper utilization.
Title: Is Energy Conservation Firesafe? Author: Ronald K. Melott, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 78-8 Date: 1978 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This paper is an overview of the existing and potential fire problems associated with (or likely to be associated with) energy conservation efforts in structures. The author wishes it clearly understood that while it does identify a number of technical issues related to the subject area, it is not a technical paper.
Title: Sprinkler Experience in High-Rise Buildings (1969-1979) Author: W. Robert Powers, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 79-1 Date: 1979 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The growing concern for fire in high-rise buildings ten years ago prompted the New York Board of Fire Underwriters to initiate a study on the effectiveness of sprinkler protection in high-rise buildings. Based upon data collected by the New York Fire Department and the Fire Patrol, a ten year story confirming the effectiveness of sprinkler protection unfolded. For instance, in high-rise buildings (other than office buildings) 1,394 fires were recorded in the ten year period. Of those, 875 (63 percent) were extinguished by the operation of a single sprinkler head. The next 296 (21 percent) were extinguished by the operation of two sprinkler heads. Only 23 of 1.6 percent of the total number of fires were not controlled by sprinklers.
Title: Fire Protection in Coal Handling Facilities New and Retrofit Author: K.W. Dungan, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 81-10 Date: 1981 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: As coal becomes an increasingly important fuel source in process industries as well as for the generation of electricity, proper fire protection of coal handling facilities becomes essential. The problems of spontaneous combustion, coal dust accumulation and methane and CO emission are discussed. Protection measures for storage facilities, conveyors, transfer equipment, process equipment, receiving and reclaiming areas are suggested. Control of hazards can be accomplished when clear cut design objectives are established and proper protection measures provided.
Title: Explosion Venting Test Program for Municipal Solid Waste Shredders Author: Robert G. Zalosh, P.E., Ph.D. and John P. Coll Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 81-9 Date: 1981 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: A gas explosion test program was conducted in a full scale mock-up of a municipal solid waste shredder (MSW). The 2200 ft3 (61 m3) mock-up simulates a horizontal shaft hammermill (including rotating shaft, discs and hammers) with a large inclined feed hood. Varying amounts of propane were injected into the shredder and the resulting gas concentrations generated by rotor induced mixing measured. Eight propane explosion tests were conducted with varying volumes of propane-air mixture at various hammermill shaft speeds. Test results indicate that venting through the top of the shredder is effective for near worst-case mixtures at moderate shredder turbulence levels, but becomes ineffective at higher turbulence levels.
Title: Fire Hazard Analysis: Foam Plastic Insulation in Exterior Walls of Buildings Author: Donald W. Belles, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-1 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Conservation represents a viable and available energy option. By insulating buildings with foamed plastic, one of the most cost-effective insulating materials currently available, energy consumption can generally be reduced. A review of the potential flammability hazards associated with the use of foam plastic insulation in exterior walls of buildings and a discussion of various special laboratory and full-scale fire testing procedures are included.
Title: A Marine View of Fire Protection Author: Donald J. Kerlin, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-10 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: There are many similarities in principles and approaches between “land based” and “marine” fire protection; however, there are also many items unique to the marine field. This report will attempt to set forth the similarities as well as point out the differences. In addition, some general interest information on marine fire protection will be conveyed.
Title: Life Safety Considerations in Atrium Buildings Author: Paul R. DeCicco, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-3 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: The tendency of atrium spaces, particularly in high-rise buildings, to impact fundamental principles of fire protection warrants special consideration. Important questions concerning separation and compartmentation of adjacent spaces and routes of egress must be specifically addressed for each design. Maintaining high levels of life safety in atrium buildings requires careful attention to transient as well as steady state conditions in analysis of smoke migration, exhaust and dilution. Examination of atrium designs of various sizes, configurations, locations within buildings and factors to be considered in setting fire safety requirements are presented.
Title: Designing Stair Pressurization Systems Author: Richard P. Thornberry, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-4 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: In the absence of established criteria for the design of stairway pressurization systems for medium- and high-rise buildings, several methods and developed empirically from experience in the field are suggested. Formulas are derived for calculating air-flow into stairwells from multiple injection points to overcome stack effect, wind velocity, pressure losses from friction and leakage and over-pressurization created by fire conditions. Assumptions necessary for designing effective and economical systems are presented, as are the cautions to be exercised in field testing the designed system after installation.
Title: Adding Logic to Fire Prevention Systems Author: John A. Campbell, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-5 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Microprocessor technology provides a tool for improving performance and reliability of fire protection systems. Their capabilities and low cost make them feasible for use in specific products and as elements of larger systems. Varying detection parameters, signal source identification and multiple input evaluation-output selection can be incorporated in current fire management systems. Microprocessor based systems make possible the opportunity to reduce fire protection costs by providing the same level of protection by means of a highly reliable single system as is currently provided by multiple redundancies using a number of protection systems.
Title: Impact of Modern Electronics on Fire Protection Author: Ralph E. Transue, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-6 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: Since the end of World War II, science and technology have brought advances in electronics, highlighted by miniaturization and reliability of components. These advances are discussed in general and then related to fire protection systems in particular. A distinction is made between microcomputers and microprocessors and between reliability of components and system integrity. Determining component reliability by mean-time-before failure analysis is explained. System integrity is not only a matter of circuit reliability, but also is a function of application to a greater number of fire protection concerns.
Title: Costing Data for Fire Protection in Complex Industrial Occupancies Author: David S. Mowrer, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-7 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This study indicates that the cost of providing active and passive fire protection systems for nuclear power generating facilities is much higher than the corresponding cost of general industry. In addition, there appears to be a substantial variance between “cost estimates” obtained from manufacturers and installers and actual “cost summaries” obtained from operating nuclear facilities.
Title: Engineering Relations for Fire Plumes Author: Gunnar Heskestad, Ph.D. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-8 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This paper presents a number of engineering relations drawn from the literature for calculating properties of fire plumes. Plume properties considered include flame heights, temperatures, velocities, concentrations of combustion products and entrainments rates of air from surroundings. In addition, a brief discussion is presented on the effect of fire growth to demonstrate the validity of the relations set forth. A note on virtual origin is also included.
Title: Simplified Radiation Heat Transfer Calculations from Large Open Hydrocarbon Fires Author: Philip J. DiNenno Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 82-9 Date: 1982 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This paper presents a simplified method for calculating the radiation heat transfer from large open hydrocarbon fires. Exposure damage is related to the calculated target irradiance. Calculations are compared with experimental data for fires between 10 and 100 ft in diameter. The uncertainties and potential large sources of error are discussed and effects on calculated results examined. Techniques are given for calculating flame height, flame emissive power, flame-target view factors and expected damage levels.
Title: Investigative Photography Author: Elliott R. Berrin, P.E. Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 83-1 Date: 1983 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This report is directed toward arson investigators, fire protection consultants, engineers, metallurgists or other technical specialists who could use photography as an adjunct to their reports and as a valuable aid in court. Cameras, light meters, electronic flashes, filters and film suitable for investigative photography are discussed in nontechnical language, as well as techniques such as shutter speed, diaphragm settings, lighting and composition. Numerous tips are given along with special requirements of investigative photography with emphasis on the admissibility of photographs in court.
Authors: Ronald L. Alpert and Edward J. Ward Document Number: SFPE Technology Report 83-2 Date: 1983 This report is an SFPE original document Abstract: This paper is based on a report written as a background guide for Factory Mutual engineers. Several basic concepts are introduced as an aid to understanding a wide range of fire behavior when sprinklers are not present. In addition, several formulas are provided so that the potential for damage to metal structures in the absence of sprinklers can be estimated easily. A substantial effort has been made to keep these formulas or equations simple enough for rapid computation with either S.I. metric or English engineering units. At the same time, adequate safety factors have been incorporated into these equations to insure that a conservative estimate can be made as to the need for sprinklers in a variety of situations. There will be cases where the concepts or formulas provided seem inappropriate or unreasonable.
Title: A Brief History of Fire Protection in the United States Atomic Energy Commission 1947-1975 Author(s): Walter W. Maybee Date: 1978 This report is a contribution an SFPE Member and was originally developed by the author for presentation at the 1978 Fall Conference of the National Fire Protection Association Abstract: In the 28 years in which it grew from a temporary war-time bomb development program to over thirty billion dollars worth of facilities housing much of the nation’s advanced research efforts, the Atomic Energy Commission (now the US Department of Energy) set many records for safety. Among the best was a cumulative fire loss ratio of 1.2¢ per $100 of value. A 1969 fire, one of four in its history that exceeded $1 million in loss, incurred $26 million damages and prompted major additions to the fire protection programs. new perf
Title: Automatic Sprinkler System Performance and Reliability in United States Department of Energy Facilities 1952-1980 Document Number: DOE/EP-0052 Author(s): Walter W. Maybee Date: June 1982 This report is a contribution an SFPE Member and was originally developed by the DOE Abstract: This report analyzes the automatic sprinkler system experiences of the United States Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies. Based on accident and incident files in the Office of Operational Safety and on supplementary responses, 587 incidents including over 100 fires are analyzed.
Title: The DOE/ERDA/AEC Fire Protection Program: A Historical Analysis Document Number: DOE/EP-0052 Author(s): Walter W. Maybee Date: September 1996 This report is a contribution an SFPE Member and was originally developed by the DOE SFPE Heritage Documents Catalog 23 May 4, 2008 Abstract: Started in 1988 and published in 1996, this document brings together the history of the Fire Protection Program within the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies (the Atomic Energy Commission and Energy Research and Development Agency). Interspersing statistics and facts amongst remembrances and colloquial information, the author brings together the most complete chronicle of one of the most well-known fire protection programs in the industry. Touching on subjects ranging from fire histories to research endeavors to the progression of fire protection specialists and engineers, this document combines useful technical information with often pointed and humorous tales.
Title: The President’s Conference on Fire Prevention (1947) Document Number: None Author(s): Major General Philip B. Fleming (General Chairman) Date: May 6-8, 1947 This report was made available by the USFA at http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/ Abstract: During and after World War II, the United States focused heavily on fire prevention and protection as a means of uniting the public against limiting the impact of fire. President Harry S. Truman called this conference to bring together the most influential people of the time to discuss the state of the industry, potential solutions and goals for the future. Recommendations are made in the realms of Firefighting Services, Fire Prevention Education, Building Construction, Research, Organized Public Support and Laws and Law Enforcement.
Title: America Burning: The Report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control Document Number: FA-264 Author(s): Bland, Richard E. (Committee Chairman) Date: 1973 This report was made available by the USFA at http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/ Abstract: Perhaps the most widely quoted fire protection publication, this report set the stage for national consciousness-raising about the need for as much concern about fire prevention as for fire suppression. The report examined, and recommended improvements to, fire services, fire hazards in built up areas, rural fire protection, domestic fire prevention and future programs, with the ultimate aim of fire prevention and control.
Title: America Burning Revisited Document Number: 5-033-508 Author(s): Colin A. Campbell and Lee Feldstein Date: 1987 This report was made available by the USFA at http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/ Abstract: This follow-up to the original report, America Burning, reviews the progress made to combat the fire problem and to redefine the strategies need to further reduce loss of life and property to fire.
Title: America At Risk: America Burning Recommissioned Document Number: FA-233-508 Author(s): George K. Bernstein (Chairman) Date: June 2002 This report was made available by the USFA at http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/ Abstract: The final report of the America Burning Recommissioned Commission. The Commission reached two major conclusions: 1) the frequency and severity of fires in America is a result of our nation's failure to adequately apply and fund known loss reduction strategies and 2) firefighters and the communities they serve would benefit if the approach to avoiding loss from fires and other hazards was equal to the dedication shown in firefighting and rescue operations.
Title: Full-Scale Residential Occupancy Fire Tests of 1939 Authors: S. Rodak and S.H. Ingberg Document Number: National Bureau of Standards Report 9527 Date: May 15, 1967 This report is a contribution of NIST as part of a cooperative project Abstract: Results are given for five full-scale fire tests in a simulated three-room residential occupancy building having gross fire loads within the range of 5.2 to 12 lb per sq ft. A similar furniture arrangement was used throughout the five fire tests, the load being varied by the introduction of other combustibles such as paper, books, and foodstuffs. Air temperature measurements are reduced to form an "equivalent fire-duration" value in terms of the ASTM standard fire exposure curve.
Title: Determination of the Self-Ignition Temperature of Combustible Liquids Authors: N.P. Setchkin Document Number: National Bureau of Standards Report 2100 Date: December 9, 1952 This report is a contribution of NIST as part of a cooperative project Abstract: A review is presented of methods which have been used to measure ignition temperatures of liquids. The fact is mentioned that many of the previous investigations in this field have not been conducted in apparatus and under thermal conditions likely to exhibit very low ignition temperatures. A description is presented of the various stages of development of an insulated spherical flask type of ignition apparatus. Using this apparatus, an extensive study has been performed on the ignition characteristics of combustible liquids. The results are presented in narrative graphical and tabular form.
Title: Preliminary Experiments with a Radiant Panel Flame-Spread Test Method Authors: A. F. Robertson, R. Kreisler and D. Gross Document Number: National Bureau of Standards Report 3229 Date: April 13, 1954 This report is a contribution of NIST as part of a cooperative project Abstract: A flame spread test method for wall surfacing materials involving the use of a radiant panel heat source is described. Measurements have been made of the energy flux field in front of the panel and at the surface of the specimen as mounted for test. A method for standardization of radiant output is described. Flame spread data are presented for a number of both organic and mineral base materials. Limitations and significance of the test method together with recommendations for further study are included.
Title: Fire Safety Study of Air Ducts and Fire Dampers: Effects on Hangar Spacing, Hangar Size and Wall Thickness, First Progress Report Authors: S. Rodak and S.H. Ingberg Document Number: National Bureau of Standards Report 10 482 Date: August 31, 1971 This report is a contribution of NIST as part of a cooperative project Abstract: In order to develop information on the performance of air conditioning ducts constructed of sheet steel the present program was initiated under the sponsorship of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Phase I of this program is a study of the feasibility and the nature of the penetration of fire into a duct, either by breakthrough of the fire through the wall or by collapse of the duct.